C60 Research Papers

Please note:  C60 is known as Carbon 60, Fullerene, Buckminsterfullerene.

Enjoy reading some of these articles.  I know we did!!

The incorporation of fullerene C60 in the ECM/niche may be an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cancer

The results indicate that C60 nanofilms might be a suitable, substitute component for the niche of cancer cells. The incorporation of fullerene C60 in the ECM/niche may be an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Effects of Pristine C60 Fullerenes on Liver and Pancreas in α-Naphthylisothiocyanate-Induced Cholangitis.

Pristine C60 fullerene inhibits liver inflammation and fibrogenesis and partially improved liver and pancreas state under acute and chronic cholangitis.

Fullerene nanoparticles selectively enter oxidation-damaged cerebral microvessel endothelial cells and inhibit JNK-related apoptosis.

By use of CMECs as an in vitro BBB model, we show for the first time that C(60)(C(COOH)(2))(2) nanoparticles can selectively enter oxidized CMECs rather than normal cells, and maintain CMECs integrity by attenuating H(2)O(2)-induced F-actin depolymerization via the observation of several state-of-the art microscopic techniques. Additionally, we have found that C(60)(C(COOH)(2))(2) nanoparticles greatly inhibit the apoptosis of CMECs induced by H(2)O(2), which is related to their modulation of the JNK pathway.

Accumulation of Weathered Pesticides in Four Agricultural Plants

After 28 d, the root and shoot content of chlordane components and DDx was determined by GC-MS. Zucchini and tomato growth were unaffected by carbon nanomaterial coexposure, although C60 at 500 mg/kg reduced corn and soybean biomass by 36.5–45.0%. Total chlordane content ranged from 1490 (tomato) to 4780 (zucchini) ng; DDx amounts ranged from 77.8 (corn) to 395 ng (zucchini).   That’s a 36.5–45.0% reduction of a insecticidal.

A biologically effective fullerene (C60) derivative with superoxide dismutase mimetic properties

Superoxide, a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, may contribute to tissue injury in many types of human disease. Here we show that a tris-malonic acid derivative of the fullerene C60 molecule (C3) is capable of removing the biologically important superoxide radical with a rate constant (k(C3)) of 2 x 10(6) mol(-1) s(-1), approximately 100-fold slower than the superoxide dismutases (SOD), a family of enzymes responsible for endogenous dismutation of superoxide.

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Fullerenes as Anti-Aging Antioxidants.

Galvan YP, Alperovich I, Zolotukhin P, Prazdnova E, Mazanko M, Belanova A, Chistyakov V.

Here we review fullerenes biological effects focusing on their antioxidant and anti-ageing action. A scope of various poisonous and healing properties reported in literature for fullerene and its derivatives is analyzed. The review begins with the history of fullerenes discovery and their main properties. Then we focus on the longevity and antioxidant action, including the confrontation of available experimental data and theoretical modeling of buckminsterfullerene C60.

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C60 as fine fillers to improve poly(phenylene sulfide) electrical conductivity and mechanical property.

Zhang M, Wang X, Bai Y, Li Z, Cheng B.

C60 is an excellent nanofiller for PPS; Electrical conductive poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS)/fullerene (C60)

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Fullerol nanoparticles suppress inflammatory response and adipogenesis of vertebral bone marrow stromal cells

Qihai Liu, PhD, Li Jin, MD, PhD, Francis H. Shen, MD, Gary Balian, PhD, and Xudong Joshua Li, MD, PhD

Low back pain is a common problem that affects a large proportion of the population at some point, thus carrying an enormous socio-economic burden. Although there are many causes of back pain, symptomatic intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration also contributes to spinal arthritis, myelopathy, and radioculopathy, and, is strongly implicated as a cause of low back pain

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What’s the difference between extra-virgin olive oil, and plain olive oil? Does it matter which one I give my pet?

Olive oils are graded according to their extraction process and on the acidity of the pressed oil. Extra-virgin olive oil is extracted from olives using pressure only, a process called cold pressing. “Extra-virgin olive oil has 1% acid. It’s the oil that comes from the first pressing of the olives, and is considered the finest, having the freshest, fruitiest flavor,” says Dr. Timothy Harlan, MD, assistant professor of clinical medicine at Tulane University.

If we’re committed to feeding our pets nutritious foods, it makes sense to try and deliver the best.

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Possible Mechanisms of Fullerene C60 Antioxidant Action

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins and are known to be the key regulators of cellular signaling. In spite of the criticism from a number of researchers free-radical theory occupies a pivotal position in modern biological concepts of aging. ~ We propose here that C60 has an ability to acquire positive charge by absorbing inside several protons and this complex could penetrate into mitochondria. ~ According to this fact and results of biochemical tests fullerene C60 was proposed to be of high antioxidant activity in vivo. ~ The proposed ability of C60 fullerenes to acquire positive charge allows ascribing them to the mitochondrial-targeted compounds. The key role of mitochondria in the cellular regulation makes such “charge-loaded” fullerenes be of great interest along the route for novel classes of drugs development.

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USA Today: Extra virgin olive oil staves off Alzheimer’s, preserves memory, new study shows

Temple University research shows extra-virgin olive oil protects against memory loss, preserves the ability to learn and reduces conditions associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Researchers at the college’s Lewis Katz School of Medicine found mice with EVOO-enriched diets had better memories and learning abilities compared to the rodents who didn’t eat the oil.

The real effect of EVOO appeared in the inner-workings of the mice’s brains. Neuron connections in the brain were better preserved in those on an EVOO diet.

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C60 is a powerful antioxidant that has effects on unsaturated fats

Actinium Chemical Research srl, via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Unsaturated lipids when exposed to air at room temperature undergo a slow autoxidation. When fullerene C(60) was dissolved in selected lipids (ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, linseed oil and castor oil) the spectrophotometric analysis shows that the oxidation is concentrated to C(60) which is converted to an epoxide C(60)O.

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Pristine C60 Fullerenes Inhibit the Rate of Tumor Growth and Metastasis

S.V. Prylutska1,*, A.P. Burlaka2 , Yu.I. Prylutskyy1 , U. Ritter3 , P. Scharff3

Aim: To estimate the impact of C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) on the rate of transplanted malignant tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: Lewis lung carcinoma was transplanted into С57Bl/6J male mice. Conventional methods for the evaluation of antitumor and antimetastatic effects have been used. Results: The C60FAS at low single therapeutic dose of 5 mg/kg inhibited the growth of transplanted malignant tumor (antitumor effect) and metastasis (antimetastatic effect): the maximum therapeutic effect was found to be of 76.5% for the tumor growth inhibition; the increase of animal life span by 22% was found; the metastasis inhibition index was estimated as 48%. Conclusion: It was found that water-soluble pristine С60 fullerenes efficiently inhibit the transplanted malignant tumor growth and metastasis

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Computer simulation study of fullerene translocation through lipid membranes.

Wong-Ekkabut J, Baoukina S, Triampo W, Tang IM, Tieleman DP, Monticelli L.

Recent toxicology studies suggest that nanosized aggregates of fullerene molecules can enter cells and alter their functions, and also cross the blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms by which fullerenes penetrate and disrupt cell membranes are still poorly understood. Here we use computer simulations to explore the translocation of fullerene clusters through a model lipid membrane and the effect of high fullerene concentrations on membrane properties.

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Sub-acute oral toxicity study withn fullerence C60 in rats

Mika Takahashi1, Hina Kato1, Yuko Doi2, Akihiro Hagiwara2, Mutsuko Hirata-Koizumi1, Atsushi Ono1, Reiji Kubota3, Tetsuji Nishimura3 and Akihiko Hirose1

To obtain initial information on the possible repeated-dose oral toxicity of fullerene C60, Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered fullerene C60 by gavage once daily at 0 (vehicle: corn oil), 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/kg/day for 29 days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. No deaths occurred in any groups, and there were no changes from controls in detailed clinical observations, body weights, and food consumption in any treatment groups. Moreover, no treatment-related histopathological changes were found in any organs examined at the end of the administration period and at the end of the recovery period. Blackish feces and black contents of the stomach and large intestine were observed in males and females at 1,000 mg/kg/day in the treatment group. There were no changes from controls in the liver and spleen weights at the end of the administration period, but those weights in males in the 1,000 mg/kg/day group increased at the end of the recovery period. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, fullerene C60 were not detected in the liver, spleen or kidney at the end of the administration period and also at the end of the recovery period. In conclusion, the present study revealed no toxicological effects of fullerene C60; however, the slight increases in liver and spleen weights after the 14-day recovery period may be because of the influence of fullerene C60 oral administration.

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[60]Fullerene derivative modulates adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors gene expression: a possible protective effect against hypoxia

Davide Giust,Tatiana Da Ros,Mairena Martín, and José Luis Albasanz

As t3ss causes overexpression of adenosine A1 and metabotropic glutamate receptors which have been shown to be neuroprotective, our results point to a radical scavenger protective effect of t3ss through the enhancement of these neuroprotective receptors expression. Therefore, the utility of these nanoparticles as therapeutic target to avoid degeneration and cell death of neurodegenerative diseases is suggested.

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Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents, Anti-Aging

Since their discovery in 1985, the pure carbon spheres of C60 (buckminsterfullerene) have generated increasing interest from many different branches of science and engineering, culminating in presentation of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Kroto, Smalley, and Curl for their identification of these unique molecules. Subsequently, investigation into the chemical and physical properties of C60 (and larger fullerenes) has yielded an extensive amount of information about C60, including its avid reactivity with free radicals.  Buckminsterfullerenes, for example, are capable of adding multiple radicals per molecule; the addition of as many as 34 methyl radicals to a single C60 sphere has been reported, leading Krusic et al.  to characterize C60 as a “radical sponge.” However, native C60 is soluble in only a limited number of organic solvents, such as toluene or benzene. We have been interested in the possibility that the potent innate antioxidant properties of C60 could be harnessed for use in biological systems by adding functional groups aimed at enhancing its water solubility.

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Update on C60 fullerenes in olive oil | AgingSciences – Anti-Aging Firewalls™

By Vince Giuliano and James P Watson

​More than a year has passed since publication of the November 2012 blog entry Buckyballs, health and longevity – state of knowledge, It will be another year or two before we know whether researchers are capable of reproducing the extraordinary longevity impacts on rats reported in the 2011 publication The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60] fullerene.

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Using C60 fullerenes for photodynamic inactivation of mosquito iridescent viruses.

Rud Y, Buchatskyy L, Prylutskyy Y, Marchenko O, Senenko A, Schütze Ch, Ritter U.

This article describes the photodynamic inactivation of mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) Aedes flavescens in the presence of water-soluble C(60) fullerenes. It has been observed that the photodynamic inactivation of MIV for about 1 h reduces the infectious titre of the virus in large wax-moth larvae Galleria mellonella to 4.5 lg ID(50)/mL.

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Possible Mechanisms of Fullerene C60 Antioxidant Action

BioMed Research International

​Novel mechanism of antioxidant activity of buckminsterfullerene C60 based on protons absorbing and mild uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration and phosphorylation was postulated. In the present study we confirm this hypothesis using computer modeling based on Density Functional Theory. Fullerene’s geroprotective activity is sufficiently higher than those of the most powerful reactive oxygen species scavengers. We propose here that C60 has an ability to acquire positive charge by absorbing inside several protons and this complex could penetrate into mitochondria. Such a process allows for mild uncoupling of respiration and phosphorylation. This, in turn, leads to the decrease in ROS production.

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The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene

SciVerse ScienceDirect and

Countless studies showed that [60]fullerene (C(60)) and derivatives could have many potential biomedical applications. However, while several independent research groups showed that C(60) has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in various experimental models, more than 25 years after its discovery the in vivo fate and the chronic effects of this fullerene remain unknown. If the potential of C(60) and derivatives in the biomedical field have to be fulfilled these issues must be addressed. Here we show that oral administration of C(60) dissolved in olive oil (0.8 mg/ml) at reiterated doses (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) to rats not only does not entail chronic toxicity but it almost doubles their lifespan. The effects of C(60)-olive oil solutions in an experimental model of CCl(4) intoxication in rat strongly suggest that the effect on lifespan is mainly due to the attenuation of age-associated increases in oxidative stress. Pharmacokinetic studies show that dissolved C(60) is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract and eliminated in a few tens of hours. These results of importance in the fields of medicine and toxicology should open the way for the many possible -and waited for- biomedical applications of C(60) including cancer therapy, neurodegenerative disorders, and ageing.
The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene (PDF Download Available). Available from: [accessed Sep 1, 2017].

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Olive Oil Offers Unique Cardiovascular Protection

By Marsha McCulloch, RD

Olive oil has been pinpointed as a major source of the cardiovascular benefits long associated with a Mediterranean diet.1,2 A recent study of a healthy Mediterranean population showed that olive oil consumption accounted for as much as a 44% reduction in cardiovascular deaths compared to those who didn’t use olive oil.3

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Buckminsterfullerenol free radical scavengers reduce excitotoxic and apoptotic death of cultured cortical neurons.

Dugan LL, Gabrielsen JK, Yu SP, Lin TS, Choi DW.

Novel anti-oxidants based on the buckminsterfullerene molecule were explored as neuroprotective agents in cortical cell cultures exposed to excitotoxic and apoptotic injuries. Two polyhydroxylated C60 derivatives, C60(OH)n, n = 12, and C60(OH)nOm, n = 18-20, m = 3-7 hemiketal groups, demonstrated excellent anti-oxidant capabilities when tested by electron paramagnetic spectroscopy with a spin-trapping agent and a hydroxyl radical-generating system.

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A carboxyfullerine SOD mimetic improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice

Kevin L. Quick a, Sameh S. Ali a, Robert Arch b, Chengjie Xiong c, David Wozniak d, Laura L. Dugan a,∗

In lower organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, many genes identified as key regulators of aging are involved in either detoxification of reactive oxygen species or the cellular response to oxidatively-damaged macromolecules. Transgenic mice have been generated to study these genes in mammalian aging, but have not in general exhibited the expected lifespan extension or beneficial behavioral effects, possibly reflecting compensatory changes during development. We administered a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age. Chronic treatment not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but significantly extended lifespan. Treated mice also exhibited improved performance on the Morris water maze learning and memory task. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration that an administered antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration not only increases lifespan, but rescues age-related cognitive impairment in mammals. SOD mimetics with such characteristics may provide unique complements to genetic strategies to study the contribution of oxidative processes to nervous system aging. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Water-soluble C60 fullerene prevents degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

Yudoh K, Shishido K, Murayama H, Yano M, Matsubayashi K, Takada H, Nakamura H, Masuko K, Kato T, Nishioka K.

In rabbits with OA, treatment with water-soluble C60 significantly reduced articular cartilage degeneration, whereas control knee joints showed progression of cartilage degeneration with time. This inhibitory effect was dose dependent, and was superior to that of HA. Combined treatment with C60 and HA yielded a significant reduction in cartilage degeneration compared with either treatment alone.  The results indicate that C60 fullerene is a potential therapeutic agent for the protection of articular cartilage against progression of OA.

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Cardiovascular effects of Fullerene Derivatives: A Review of Current Evidence

Alexander V. Syrensky,1 Elena I. Egorova,2 Ilia V. Alexandrov,2 and Michael M. Galagudza2, 1 V.A. Almazov Research Institute of Cardiology of the Ministry of Health Care and 2 St. Petersburg I.P. Pavlov Federal Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

During two last decades, several unique physical and chemical properties of buckminsterfullerene or fullerene C60 have been described. However, much less is known about the effects of fullerenes and their derivatives on biological systems. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that fullerenes may exert influence on different physiological and pathophysiological processes primarily because of their antioxidant effects.

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Carboxyfullerene prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in rat brain

Lin AM, Chyi BY, Wang SD, Yu HH, Kanakamma PP, Luh TY, Chou CK, Ho LT.

Carboxyfullerene, a water-soluble carboxylic acid derivative of a fullerene, was investigated as a protective agent against iron-induced oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of anesthetized rats. Intranigral infusion of exclusive carboxyfullerene did not increase lipid peroxidation in substantia nigra or deplete dopamine content in striatum. Infusion of ferrous citrate (iron II) induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

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Amorphous Shungite Carbon: A Natural Medium for the Formation of Fullerines

V. A. Reznikov and Yu. S. Polekhovskiœ

—A comparative analysis of data on the density, porosity, and intermolecular space of high-carbon shungites, graphite, glassy carbon, and C60 fullerite gave an estimate of the fullerene content in the shungite samples which agrees with the values obtained by electrochemical and polar solvent extraction methods. A low yield of fullerenes in the extracts obtained with nonpolar solvents is explained by the high polarity and large adsorption energy of fullerenes and related compounds. © 2000 MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”.

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Survival characteristics and age-adjusted disease incidences in C57BL/6 mice fed a commonly used cereal-based diet modulated by dietary restriction.

Turturro A, Duffy P, Hass B, Kodell R, Hart R.

Studies of C57BL/6 mice are often restricted to one sex, with limited characterization of pathology as a function of age. As part of the National Institute on Aging/National Center for Toxicological Research Collaboration on Biomarkers, over 3000 males and 1500 females of this strain were raised, maintained, and used to evaluate longevity under specific pathogen-free conditions.

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The effect of squalane-dissolved fullerene-C60 on adipogenesis-accompanied oxidative stress 

Xiao L1, Aoshima H, Saitoh Y, Miwa N.

Effects of squalane-dissolved fullerene-C60 (Sql-fullerene) on macrophage activation and adipose conversion with oxidative stress were studied using an inflammatory adipose-tissue equivalent (ATE) and OP9 mouse stromal preadipocyte-U937 lymphoma cell co-culture systems. Differentiation of OP9 cells was initiated by insulin-rich serum replacement (SR) as an adipogenic stimulant, and then followed by accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets and reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which were significantly inhibited by Sql-fullerene.

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Inhibition of Group A Streptococcus Infection by Carboxyfullerene 

Nina Tsao, Tien-Yau Luh, Chen-Kung Chou, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yee-Shin Lin, and Huan-Yao Lei.

Inhibition of GAS infection by carboxyfullerene.In the air pouch model of GAS infection, inoculation of 109 S. pyogenes A-20 cells (the LD100 for mice at 48 h) causes hair loss, suppuration, and bleeding on the skin around the air pouch at 24 h (8); the mice die at 48 h. The effect of carboxyfullerene on GAS-induced mortality was evaluated. As shown in Fig.1A, carboxyfullerene pretreatment inhibited S. pyogenes A-20-induced death dose dependently. Injection of 10 mg of carboxyfullerene/kg of body weight resulted in 25% survival (2 of 8 mice), 20 mg/kg resulted in 63% survival (5 of 8), 30 mg/kg resulted in 75% survival (6 of 8), and 40 mg/kg completely protected mice from S. pyogenesA-20-induced death.

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Fullerene-C60/liposome complex: Defensive effects against UVA-induced damages in skin structure

Kato S, Aoshima H, Saitoh Y, Miwa N.

We previously reported biological safety of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in liposome consisting of hydrogenated lecithin and glycine soja sterol, as Liposome-Fullerene (0.5% aqueous phase; a particle size, 76nm; Lpsm-Flln), and its cytoprotective activity against UVA. In the present study, Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model, rinsed out before each UVA-irradiation at 4 J/cm(2), and thereafter added again, followed by 19-cycle-repetition for 4 days (sum: 76 J/cm(2)).

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